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戏曲伴奏乐器马骨胡

时间:2013-08-09 来源:河南戏曲网 点击:351 我要评论(879) 字号:小 中 大
        马骨胡在壮语中称“冉督”、“冉列”。“冉”为胡琴统称,督,为骨头,意即用马、骡、牛的骨头制成的胡琴。故通常称之为马骨胡或骨胡。壮语又称“冉列”、“冉森”。“列”、“森”兼有体积小、发音高而尖之意。“冉列”又是由传说中一对青年男女的名字所组成。
  形制与奚琴类型的乐器相似,音色清脆明亮、悦耳动听,常用于独奏、器乐合奏或为民间歌曲、说唱音乐、壮剧和布依戏等戏剧伴奏。流行于广西壮族自治区隆林、西林、田林、百色、乐业、凌云等桂西百色地区,贵州省兴义、安龙、贞丰、册亨、望谟等黔西南布依族苗族自治州和云南省文山壮族苗族自治州富宁县等地。
  演奏时,琴筒置于腿上,左手持琴按弦,右手执马尾弓在两弦间拉奏。音色近似京胡并较之柔美。常用技法有前挫弓、后挫弓、小跳弓、顿弓、打音、倚音、滑音等。用于独奏、八音乐队合奏、莫伦说唱和壮剧伴奏。是八音乐队的主奏乐器,在壮剧乐队中也居领奏地位。
  琴筒原用一段、现用多块马、骡或牛大腿骨拼粘制成,长10—12、直径5厘米,呈椭圆形,前口蒙蛇皮、鱼皮或蛙皮,后敞口。琴杆红木或红椿木制,上粗下细,长46—60厘米,顶端雕马头为饰。置二轴,原黄(一种鹿)角制,现用红木制。张二条钢丝弦。定弦d1、a1,音域
d1—e3,两个多八度。
  传统的马骨胡,由琴筒、琴头、琴杆、弦轴、千斤、琴马、琴弦和琴弓等部分组成。琴筒呈椭圆筒形,多采用“哩马”(小马)的大腿骨上部制作,两端稍加修整,大口一端磨平,琴筒原用一段、现用多块马、骡或牛大腿骨拼粘制成,长10—20厘米、直径5厘米,呈椭圆形,筒身上下开出装入琴杆的通孔,筒长10厘米—12厘米、直径4厘米—6厘米,大口一端作为筒前口,多蒙以蛇皮,也有蒙鱼皮或青蛙皮的,并使用鸡蛋清做粘合剂,筒后端敞口或置音窗。琴头、琴杆多使用一整根硬木或竹杆制成,多采用红木、红椿木、罗汉竹或金竹制作,上粗下细,全长46厘米—60厘米,木制者以红木为好,竹制者以罗汉竹最佳。琴头系在木制琴杆顶端雕刻出马头为饰,竹制琴杆则需单独雕出木制马头镶嵌于竹杆上端,马头雕饰精巧细致,玲珑美观。琴头下方横置二轴,置轴部位呈方柱形,弦轴原来多用雄黄(即黄麂,又称吠鹿)角制作,既质地坚硬、不易跑弦,又灵巧美观、风格独特;后来多使用黄杨、黄檀或琴杆木料制作,呈圆锥形,轴柄部位刻有条纹,置轴方向与琴筒平行。琴杆呈圆柱体,上粗下细,中间设有丝弦作为千斤。皮面中央置有木制空心琴马,张有两条琴弦,定弦d1、a1,音域d1—e3,两个多八度。原来多用羊肠弦或丝弦,现改为钢丝弦。琴弓用细竹做弓杆,两端拴以一束马尾为弓毛,弓长60厘米左右。
  在北京中国艺术研究院音乐研究所的中国乐器博物馆里,陈列着一支来自壮族民间的马骨胡。琴筒用马的大腿骨制作,呈椭圆形,筒长11.5厘米,前口蒙以蛇皮,面径6厘米,后口置镂空音窗,内径4厘米。琴杆红木制,全长61厘米,顶端雕以马头为饰,下方置轴部位呈方柱形,其上横置两个硬木制圆锥形弦轴,轴长12厘米。琴杆圆柱形,上粗下细,中间设丝弦千斤,下端装入琴筒并外露,竹制空心琴马、张两条丝弦,琴弓用细竹做杆,较粗一端在弓杆尾部,两端拴以黑色马尾为弓毛,弓长69厘米。这支马骨胡为1963年广西壮族自治区音协赠予音乐研究所珍藏。已被载入《中国乐器图鉴》大型画册中。
  建国后,改革的马骨胡用内蒙马及牛骨拼粘琴筒,尤以大洋马腿骨拼粘的琴筒发音最好,音量宏大;并将琴杆加粗改短,弦轴改为红木制作,琴弦用钢丝弦,采用二胡琴弓,演奏时还将双膝夹持琴街改为置于腿上,60年代已用于独奏。今天的马骨胡,定弦为d1、a1,音域由d1~e3,有两个多八度。音色清脆、明亮,既与京胡近似又较之柔美,已成为富有壮族特色的独奏、齐奏乐器。在北路壮剧乐队中,马骨胡是主奏乐器。为它配奏的,还有一种琴筒较大的中音马骨胡。它们衬托唱腔,使壮剧音乐更加优美动听。
  关于马骨胡的来历,在广西的壮乡山寨流传着这样一个动人的故事:很早以前,这里住着一位聪颖俊俏的姑娘阿冉和一位勤劳勇敢的青年阿列,他们从小一起长大,青梅竹马,非常相爱。
  马骨胡
  阿列是个弹不虚发的好猎手,常常拉起土胡向阿冉倾述衷肠,阿冉则用嘹亮的山歌表达自己的一片钟情。阿冉家有一匹浑身枣红、四蹄雪白的骏马“四蹄雪”,长得高大肥壮,毛色油光发亮,走如行船跑如飞,远近闻名。一天,土司要用“重金”买下“四蹄雪”,当他看见貌似仙女的阿冉后,垂涎千尺,连人也要霸占,便下令连人带马一同抢回山寨。土司强迫婚嫁,阿冉宁死不从而被关进后院的黑屋里。土司得意忘形,乘兴试马时,却被摔得头破血流,他恼羞成怒,一气之下差人杀了“四蹄雪”,又把马皮剥下、马骨剔出丢在阿冉面前,威逼说如不与他成婚,也要像马一样扒皮、剔骨。
  阿冉看见心爱的“四蹄雪”惨遭不幸悲愤万分,她拔下一些长马尾,收拾起一条马的大腿骨,请在土司家当长工的穷苦人捎给了阿列。阿列痛苦欲绝,便用马腿骨做琴筒、马尾做弓毛制成了一支别致的马骨胡,声音高亢嘹亮,响彻山谷。阿冉从美妙的琴声中得知阿列搭救她的时间和办法。夜晚,阿列爬过高墙,救出阿冉,并射死了追赶的土司。从此,他俩一起离开生育他们的山寨,走遍壮乡各地传授马骨胡技艺,并在琴顶雕刻马头为饰。后来村村寨寨响起马骨胡的优美琴声,人们为了纪念阿冉和阿列这对传授马骨胡的青年人,就把马骨胡称作“冉列”,并世代相承、流传至今。
  以上内容为河南戏曲网收集整理,若有失实或者错误之处,欢迎指正。
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